HOW DO WE WRITE THE RESEARCH PAPER?
by: Ronor P. Escabarte
Science Faculty, MOGCHS
A science investigatory project ends with a report. It is also known as the technical paper.
OUTLINE FORMA. TITLE- catch the attention
The phrase “A Study to Show” should be avoided, because in research you do not seek to prove something, but rather to impartially find an answer.
- short paragraph of not more than 200 to 250 words
- gives the essential or principal features of the project study
This section includes the following parts:
a. Background of the Study
- presents the reasons that led the investigator to launch the study
- a historical background maybe given
- may state some observations & other relevant conditions that prompted the investigator to
explore the problem
Some guide questions while writing this part of the paper:
- Why did I select this research project?
- Are there others who have done similar studies?
- What have the others done or not done that moved or spurred me to work on this problem?
- What are my own observations which are relevant to the study?
- Will the results of the study make any contribution in the attainment of a better quality of life?
b. Statement of the Problem/Objectives
- the nature & scope of the problem should be presented with clarity
Two Types of Objectives maybe stated:
1. General Objective – this is related to the problem as given in the early part
2. Specific Objective – this states the purpose of each experiment conducted
c. Significance of the Study
- the importance of the study is explained in this part
d. Scope and Limitations
- states the coverage and extent of the study
Example: from “The Effect of Christmas Palm (Veitchia merrilli) Fruits in Lowering Blood Sugar Level”
The researchers brought a 2-month old puppy in the MCA clinic (Marlito C. Aruta)
for blood analysis. They used the fruits of Christmas palm collected from North Poblacion, Naga, Cebu.
The study does not cover the idea of what would be the effect of the product in the case of diabetes. The study focuses on the effect of the product to the sugar level and if it could be
a possible cure to lower the level of blood sugar
e. Review of Related Literature
- Sufficient background information should be presented for readers to understand and evaluate the results of the present study and theories written on the topic should be included.
- provides enough details so that a competent worker can repeat the experiments.
-the exact technical specifications, quantities and source of method of preparation for all materials used should be given.
Specifically, built equipment used in the study must be described and the description accompanied by a picture.
b. Treatment/General Procedure
- the manner and sequence by which each experiment or set of observations were done or how measurement were obtained should be described in detail.
E. Results and Discussion
- this maybe divided into sub-sections describing each set of experiments or observations.
a. Findings – the data maybe presented in full and discussed descriptively in the text or these maybe summarized in tables, pictures & graphs.
b. Analysis of Data
- the interpretation of findings are discussed and the significant features shown in the tables, figures or graphs are pointed out.
- the general truth implied or illustrated by the results should be clearly stated. The evidence based on the results should be summarized for each statement.
- consists of suggestions on future actions such as a new direction of research or further experiments to be performed, practices that might be adapted or discarded in order to attain certain goals or objectives.
H. Bibliography – a list of the references used in guiding the research work and writing the paper.
The research paper should contain the following:
c.Method & Procedures (described in detail)
e.Conclusions & Recommendations
f.Bibliography ( at least 3 major references
Scientific fraud and misconduct are not condoned at any level of research or competition. Plagiarism, use or presentation of other researcher’s work as one’s own, forgery of approval signatures and fabrication or falsification of data or approval dates will not be tolerated. Fraudulent projects are disqualified for the competition.
Tips in the Format
-Must be typewritten in Times Roman style
-Double-spaced in short bond paper (8” x 11”), font size 11
-The Acknowledgement should contain the names of people and agencies that helped in the conduct of the work described.
-The Table of Contents lists the different parts of the whole report with the corresponding page number of each part. The wording and grammar of the chapter titles, heading and title of tables & figures should be consistent.
How do we PRESENT OUR INVESTIGATORY PROJECT In the Science Fair?
Qualifications of a Judge in the Science Fair
a. Holder of a bachelor’s degree with specialization in any of the scientific discipline.
b. Employee of any of the science agencies or cooperating agencies of the Science Fair.
c. May be a professor in a college or university but is not directly connected with any of the schools participating in the Science Fair.
d. Preferably must have had previous experience
as a judge in a Science Fair.
e. Must be an expert in his own field of discipline.
CRITERIA for JUDGING EXHIBITS/PROJECTS
A. The project develops the investigator’s capacities in the discipline of science & scientific endeavor.
1. Creativity, originality & resourcefulness---- 30%a. Does the project show the investigator’s creative ability in presenting the problem?
- the approach to solving the problem?
- the analysis and interpretation of data?
- the use of equipment?
b. Is the project a new design or a new combination of facts and processes?
- No project is original in all aspects, however, the credit for creativity and originality lies in the new idea shown in the work. This may include whatever innovations were introduced to an already known fact or process.
c. What evidence indicates that the investigator has shown cleverness in finding ways & means to workout his project.
2. Intellectual Honesty & other Moral Values 10%How honest is the project investigator in the preparation?
3.Thoroughness & Skill 30%a. As a whole, does the project answer the problems that initiated the study or research?
b. Does the project carry out its purpose to completion within the scope of its original aim?
c. How completely has the problem been covered in the project?
d. Are the conclusions based on a single experiment or on replication?
Thoroughness and Skill continued:
e. Is there available scientific literature in the selected field?
f. Are there other approaches or theories concerning the project?
g. How long did it take to finish the project?
h. Has the investigator emphasized important details?
i. Did the investigator compare and contrast the results obtained?
j. Have controls been used?
4. Clarity of Presentation
a.Is the problem stated clearly?
b.How sufficient are the data presented?
c.How clearly is the project discussed?
d.How was the oral defense of the project during the Science Congress?
B. The project contributes to the advancement of Science and Technology.
1. Applicability of Scientific Principles 20%a. Does the project utilize any scientific principle?
b. How often are the scientific principles used?
c. Is there already an existing device of the same kind that is used by the investigators? If there is, was it a modification or an exact duplicate?
Recipe for success: study while others sleeping; work while others are loafing; prepare while others are playing; dream while others are wishing.”
-William A. Ward-